Sanitation Programmes

Rural sanitation is a State Subject. The state government's implement the rural sanitation programme under state sector minimum needs programme (MNP). The Central Government Supplements the States efforts providing financial and technical assistance through the Centrally sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSOP). 
The Centrally Sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) was launched in 1986 with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and to provide privacy and dignity to women. The concept of sanitation was expanded in 1993 to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage and excreta disposal and waste water disposal. The components of the programme include construction of individual sanitary latrines for households below the poverty line (BPL), conversion of individual sanitary latrines, construction of village sanitary complexes women, setting up of sanitary marts, intensive campaign for awareness creation and health education etc.
  • Accelerate coverage of rural population, especially among households below the poverty line (BPL) with sanitation facilities, complementing the efforts in rural water supply.
  • Generate felt need through awareness creation and health education involving voluntary organisations and panchayati raj institutions.
  • Eradicate manual scavenging by converting all existing dry latrines into low cost sanitary latrines.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies to support other objectives.
Target Group
The rural population below the poverty line.
Salient Features
The revised policy for implementation of the rural sanitation programme during the 9th plan period has been approved by the union cabinet. The salient features of the policy are as under:
  • Raise sanitation coverage to at least 50 percent by 9th plan.
  • Total sanitation campaign (TSC) in select districts with 50 percent allocation during first year.
  • Balance 50 percent for existing allocation-based programme.
  • Switch over from allocation based programme to a demand driven one.
  • Shift from high subsidy to low subsidy regime.
  • Greater beneficiary participation and private sector involvement.
  • Active participation of NGOs/Cooperative institutions etc.
  • Emphasize school sanitation.
  • Increased technological options and adoption of Vertical upgradation concept
  • The total latrines constructed under the programme (CRSP+MNP) upto the end of the Eighth plan period (1996-97) were 4,337,609 with a total expenditure of Rs. 757.62 crore. 
  • The central allocation for the year 1997-98 was Rs. 100.00 crore; the state MNP provision was Rs. 209.83 crore. The total latrines constructed in 1997-98 were 1.387,080. 
  • During 1998-99 the Central allocation was Rs. 67.00 crore as against the state MNP provision of Rs.213.34 crore and 824.520 household latrines have been constructed up to January 1999.
Funding pattern
Under the revised programme the states are required to formulate total sanitation campaigns (TSCs) in select districts. To allow time for the proper grounding of the new approach, the existing "allocation based programme" will also be continued and would be phased out at the end of the 9th plan period. While the first year will have 50 percent of funds earmarked for the existing programme, only 30 percent will be allotted in the next year followed by 10 percent during the third year.
The state government should provide matching contribution under the minimum needs programme (MNP) equivalent to the allocation under CRSP.
The extent of subsidy from Centre, state and and beneficiaries /Panchayats for a few components of the programmes are in the follwing ratio:
Programme Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) Normal
  • Construction of household 60:20:20 60:20:20
    • Sanitary latrines, women's Complexes etc.
  • School sanitation 60:30:10 60:30:10
  • Alternate delivery mechanism 80:20 upto 5 per.
    • (Rural Sanitary Marts/Production of annual Centres) Allocation
Implementing Agency
The programme is being implemented through the state government Departments/ Boards (PHED/ Panchayati Raj/ Rural Development).
Evaluation Conducted
A very comprehensive baseline survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) in rural water supply and sanitation was conducted during 1996-97 covering 39000 respondents in 74 districts throughout the country. The study showed that 55 percent of those with private latrines weere self-motivated. Only 2 percent of the respondents claimed the existence of subsidy as the major motivation factor, while 54 percent claimed to have gone in for sanitary latrines due to convenience and privacy. The study also showed that 51 percent of the beneficiaries were willing to spend upto Rs. 100/- to acquire sanitary toilets.
Corrective Action Taken
Taking into account the deficiencies of the programme which were mainly heavy reliance on subsidy, inadequate participation of beneficiaries, limited choice of models and inadequate involvement of NGOs, a comprehensive review of the rural sanitation programme has been done. The changes effected in the programme involve a major shift from a high-subsidy to a low-subsidy regime, adoption of "Total Sanitation Campaign" approach, choice of technology according to customer preferences and greater community participation. School sanitation is an important component of this programme.